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Explain the various order of geometrical irregularities on the surface? Write the advantages and disadvantages of the stylus probe type instrument?

 various order of geometrical irregularities on the surface:


When the metal is machined by some process, it cannot be perfectly finished and hence irregularities are present on it. There are some geometrical irregularities on surfaces can be classified into various orders.

1. First order:

These irregularities are formed in the machine, due to inaccuracies, this irregularity also contains lack of straightness of guide ways, this is caused due to metal weight and cutting force.

2. Second order:

 Irregularities such as chatter marks, etc. are formed due to vibrations. This type of irregularities is called second-order irregularities.

3. Third order:

This is formed due to the machining process, even if the machine is perfect and vibration free are called third order irregularities.






4. Fourth order:

This is formed due to the separation of the chip, this is caused due to rupture of material are fourth order irregularities.

Advantages of stylus probe type instrument: 

  • To measure the surface finish of deep bores, Profilo meter is highly used.
  • The profilometer is directly used to measurement of surface quality.
  • Tomlinson surface meter is an economical.
  • Tomlinson surface meter gives reliable results.
  • Talysurf output is accurate.


Disadvantages of stylus probe type instrument:


  • Initial cost is high.
  • It is complicated.
  • When there is surface waviness, the instrument shows error.
  • Measurement of surface waviness is limited to a section of a surface.
  • Skilled operated is required.in order to operate the instrument.

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