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Computer Numerical Control (CNC) Machine, How CNC Machine Works

Computer Numerical Control Machine (CNC):

Computer Numerical Control: Computer Numerical Control (CNC) Machine is an automated machine that used to control by the help of the computer. This control system CNC Machine is 'Soft-Wired'. This used to function according to the Programs in it, this is operated by skilled persons. By this, we can control a range of complex machinery. Computer Numerical Control (CNC) is operated by the help of Numerical control.
In this, the program can be changed on the control itself. this has a capability of manipulating logical functions. For getting high accuracy, done by subsystems in it. for storing the logical functions and programs it uses a computer chips.


  • Computer Numerical control is a manufacturing technology that done with accurate. this is a type of technology that belongs to digital because this used to take the information which is in the form of digitized data and CAM programs and makes an output through the workpiece. by this, any material can be machined.
  • The program is stored in it, which is known as G-code. it is an automated machine and has machine centers that can change the cutting tool according to the work.
  • On this Many operations can be done through this machine drilling, milling etc..

Working of Computer Numerical Control (CNC) Machine:
  Computer numerical control machine starts from storage of program, the available space is present in the computer to store the required data or programs, from there the instructions given in the form of codes sent in to the action of tool by the help of control unit, in this path there is an editing space is provided to make any changes required at the time of machining process we can identify any types of errors and can be solved within the short time. to communicate all this process there is a monitor to verify the performance and malfunctions at the time machining process. if the running process is in a correct method then the process of machining is continued to complete the given task or work. the response of the tool is too fast according to the message passed to it and makes the work easy and fast.       

Main parts of CNC machine:

Input Device:

As the name indicated this is a device to enter the part programme for the function of the machining process, This is a type of coding system which can be symbols/numbers. According to the programme entered in the input device the product gets machined and there are few types to enter the data like a computer, Punched tape etc.

Machine control unit:

Machine control is used to check and absorves the programme entered in the input device and it used to run the machine tool by decoding in this unit. and this also used to collect the feedback signals to rectify the errors and gives an indication to solve the problem occurred in the machining process.

Machine tool:

The machine tool is used to carry the spindle to carry the cutting tool and it helps to rotate the cutting tool along with the spindle. the machine tool works according to the signals sent by the machine control unit and it gets controlls over speed, depth, angle etc..

Driving System:

In this unity, there are different motors to run the complete unit like a spindle, table moment, saddle moment, angles, coolant supply etc.
Whenever the signal is sent by the control unit the driving unit gets started and supplies the required moment.

Feedback system:

This is to collect the complete information related to the driving unit, this unit helps find the cutting tool action, coolant etc. with the help of this unit we can find the errors and can be displayed on the monitor.

Display unit:

This is used to find the information about the complete machining process, if there are any errors occur at the time of machining process the display unit shows particular information and helps to change the program.


Advantages of CNC machine:

  • In this, there is an availability of the battery to finish the work even after the power cut. in this, the operator can identify the errors at the time of operation and this can be corrected in part program and can be stored.
  • If there are any malfunctions, the message used to display on the screen by this we can respond as soon as possible.
  • In modern CNC machines, there is a feature like on and off in coolant, Spindle speed etc..
  • In this, the program can recall a number of times.
  • There is an advantage in converting the units of Inches into International systems of units.
  • By this Complex design, Accuracy, good machinability can be obtained by this.

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