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Kaplan turbine

Kaplan turbine:

In Kaplan turbine the vanes on the hub are adjustable, the turbine is known as Kaplan turbine. This turbine is suitable, where large quantity of water at low heads is available.

Main parts of the Kaplan turbine are:

1. Scroll casing
2. Guide vanes mechanism
3. Hub with vanes or runner of the
turbine
4. Draft tube

Working of a Kaplan turbine:

Between the guide vanes and the runner
the water in the Kaplan turbine turns
through a right angle in to the axial angle
direction and then posses through the
runner. The runner of the Kaplan turbine has four or six or eight in some cases blades and it closely resembles a ships propeller. The blades (vanes) attached to a hub or bosses are so shaped that water flows axially through the runner.
The runner blades of a propeller turbine are fixed but the Kaplan turbine runner heads can be turned about their own axis, so that their angle of inclination may be adjusted while the turbine is in motion. The adjustment of the runner blades in usually carried out automatically by means of a
servomotor operating inside the hollow coupling of turbine and generator shaft. When both guide vane angle and runner blade angle may thus be varied ahigh efficiency can be maintained over a wide range of operating conditions. i.e. even at part load, when a lower discharge is following through the runner a high efficiency can be attained in case of Kaplan turbine. The flow through turbine runner does not affect the shape of velocity triangles as blade angles are simultaneously adjusted, the water under all the working conditions flows through the runner blades without shock. The eddy losses which are inevitable in Francis and propeller turbines are completely eliminated in a Kaplan Turbine.
The value of flow ratio for a Kaplan turbine is 0.7
The runner blades of the Kaplan turbine are twisted, the blade angle being greater at the outer tip than at the hub. This is because the peripheral velocity of the blades being directly proportional to radius. It will valy from section to section along the blade, and hence in order to have shock free entry and exit of water over the blades
with angles varying from section to section will have to be designed.

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