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Vacuum Gauges, McLeod gauge and Pirani gauge

Vacuum Gauges:

Vacuum gauges are instruments for giving a visual indication, by means of a pointer, of the amount by which the pressure of a fluid applied to the gauge is less than
the pressure of the surrounding atmosphere. Two examples of vacuum gauges are the McLeod gauge and the Pirani gauge.

McLeod gauge:

The McLeod gauge is normally regarded as a standard and is used to calibrate other forms of vacuum gauges. The basic principle of this gauge is that it takes a
known volume of gas at a pressure so low that it cannot be measured, then compresses the gas in a known ratio
until the pressure becomes large enough to be measured by an ordinary manometer. This device is used to measure low pressures, often in the range 10–6 to
1.0 mm of mercury. A disadvantage of the McLeod gauge is that it does not give a continuous reading of pressure and is not suitable for registering rapid variations in pressure.

Pirani gauge:

The Pirani gauge measures the resistance and thus the temperature of a wire through which current is flowing. The thermal conductivity decreases with the pressure
in the range 10^–1 to 10^–4 mm of mercury so that the increase in resistance can be used to measure pressure in this region. The Pirani gauge is calibrated by comparison with a McLeod gauge.

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