Header Ads

PELTON WHEEL

PELTON WHEEL (Turbine):

It is a tangential flow impulse turbine. The water strikes the bucket along the tangent
of the runner. The energy available at the inlet of the turbine is only kinetic energy. The pressure at the inlet and out let of turbine is atmospheric. This turbine is used for high heads and is named after L.A.Pelton an American engineer.
 The water from the reservoir flows through the penstocks at the out let of which a nozzle is fitted. The nozzle increases the kinetic energy of the water flowing through the penstock. At the outlet of the nozzle, the water comes out in the form of a jet and strikes the buckets (vanes) of the runner.

The main parts of the Pelton turbine are:

1. Nozzle and flow regulating arrangement (spear)
2. Runner and Buckets.
3. Casing and
4. Breaking jet

1. Nozzle and flow regulating arrangement: 

The amount of water striking the buckets 
(vanes) of the runner is controlled by providing a spear in the nozzle. The spear is a conical needle which is operated either by hand wheel or automatically in an axial direction depending upon the size of the unit. When the spear is pushed forward in to the nozzle, the amount of water striking the runner is reduced. On the other hand, if the spear is pushed back, the amount of water striking the runner increases.

2. Runner with buckets:

 It consists of a circular disc on the periphery of which a number of buckets evenly spaced are fixed. The shape of the buckets is of a double hemispherical cup or bowl. Each bucket is divided in to two symmetrical parts by a dividing wall, which is known
as splitter. The jet of water strikes on the splitter. The splitter divides the jet in to two
equal parts and the jet comes out at the outer edge of the bucket. The buckets are shaped in such a way that the jet gets deflected through an angle of 160 or 170 . The buckets are made of cast Iron, cast steel, Bronze or stainless steel depending upon the head at the inlet of the
turbine.

3. Casing: 

The function of casing is to prevent the splashing of the water and to discharge the water to tailrace. It also acts as safeguard against accidents. It is made of Cast Iron or fabricated steel plates. The casing of the Pelton wheel does not perform any hydraulic function.

4. Breaking jet:

 When the nozzle is completely closed by moving the spear in the forward direction, the amount of water striking the runner reduces to zero. But the runner due to inertia goes on revolving for a long time. To stop the runner in a short time, a small nozzle is provided, which directs the jet of water on the back of the vanes. This jet of water is called
Breaking jet.

No comments