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Gears: Types of Gears & Types of Gear failures - Mechanical Education


Gears & Types of Gears: In this article we will discuss about gears and types of gears like helical gear, spur gear, rack gear, worm gear, internal gear, bevel gear, sprockets gear. Gears are the elements used to transmit rotational power from one shaft to another shaft.which consist of teeth on it. gears play the most important role in the automobile industry to transmit the power. by using gears we achieve various speed ratios, Gears should have high resistance to wear and corrosion to have this properties gear are made up of alloy steels, cast iron etc.  according to the application required, various gears are used in power transmission.

Types of Gears:

They are different types of gears they are as follows:

Helical Gear:

Helical gears are inclined teeth which have inclined contact to the face of the tooth. this gears can carry heavy loads easily. helical gears are less efficiency at power transmission and produce no noise. this is mostly used at heavyweights at a lower speed and thus are more costly one.

Spur Gear:

Spur gears are parallel gears which have parallel contact to the rotational axis. these gears cannot handle axial loads. the efficiency of transmission is more at high speed and carry low weight loads comparatively to helical gears. spur gears produce more sounds.

Rack and pinion gear:

This type of gears consist of circular gear called rack and long length rod contains teeths on it. rack used to move on the pinion according to the movement applied. this type of mechanism used in the steering system.

Worm Gears:

Gears are used to transmit the power from one shaft to another by rotational movement most common type of gears are parallelly connected but the worm is widely used to transmit the power where non-parallel shafts and non-intersecting shafts are present. power is transmitted from one to next in non-parallel and intersecting shafts. in these types of gears sliding velocity is comparatively high.
There are different types in worm gears:
  • Straight Face WormGear
  • Concave face wormgear

Internal Gear:

Internal gears are nothing but the circular element contains teeth inside it. best example for this type of gears is epicyclic, this are also used for coupling purpose.

Bevel Gear/miter Gear:

These gears are used where the contact between gears should be perpendicular to each other, this gear comes in contact when both rotational axes are perpendicular to each other.

Sprockets gear:

Sprockets gears are mostly used in bikes to drive the chain / belt system for rotational purpose.

Types of Gear Failures:

There are different types of Gear Failures they are as follows:
  • Abrasive Wear
  • Temperature
  • Pitting
  • Scuffing
  • Tooth Breakage

Abrasive Wear:

This type of failure is caused by the lubricating oils because oils contain abrasive particles may damage the gear by removing the smooth/soft part of the gear and leads to abrasive wear failure.


This failure is by high temperature when the temperature of gears increased to higher than the normal once then gears may lead to failure.


This is due to the removal of metal from the surface of gear and causes damage, the removal of metal depends on the stress on the gears, if there is a high amount of stress which exceeds the normal then it leads to failure of gear.


This is occurred due to the wear, this is due to the high temperature developed where there is insufficient lubrication oil.

Tooth Breakage:

This is due to the high street to load applied on the gear.


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