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Reciprocating pump, Working and Parts - Mechanical Education

Reciprocating Pump:

Reciprocating Pump: A reciprocating pump is a water discharge pump which is drawn from a storage tank or from underground. A reciprocating pump is simple in design to construct and to operate this process. In Reciprocating Pump Piston plays the main role to lift the water from the tank and deliver through the outlet pipe. A reciprocating pump is commonly used to draw the water from underground.

Working of Reciprocating pump:

There is a crankshaft which is attached to the piston rod when the crankshaft rotates at its fixed center the piston rod attached to it moves in to and fro this helps to slide the piston in the cylinder. when the piston moves to the left side the inlet valve present in the suction pipe gets opened and allows the water to enter into the cylinder as shown in the figure, and when the piston moves in forwarding direction the outlet valve gets opened by closing the inlet valve, with the help of outlet pipe the water present in the cylinder pass out through the outlet valve and gets delivered.   

Construction of Reciprocating pump:

In this there is a crankshaft which is connected to the piston rod which helps to move the piston inside the cylinder in to and fro motion and this cylinder is attached to the suction and delivery pipe, the suction pipe used to suck the water from the storage tank and the delivery pipe used to supply the water out of the pump. and in between this there are two valves, the inlet valve is connected to the suction pipe which present at the inner portion of the pipe and delivery pipe is connected to outlet valve which helps to pass the water out of the pipe. the function of valves is operated at the time of piston moment, at the time of suction the inlet valve gets opened and outlet valve gets closed and at the time of delivery outlet valve gets opened and inlet valve gets closed.

Main parts of the Reciprocating pump:

The Following are the main parts of Reciprocating Pump:
  • Cylinder
  • Piston
  • Piston Rod
  • Crank Shaft
  • Inlet Valve
  • Outlet valve


  • Cylinder present in the reciprocating pump helps to move the piston in to and fro motion and this helps to store the water at the time of suction and delivers when the piston moves in the forward direction.


  • This is used to suck the water and applies the pressure on the water present in the cylinder to discharge it.

Piston Rod:

  • This is used to connect between piston and crankshaft.


  • This is used to rotate at a fixed center, which makes the piston slides inside the cylinder.

Inlet Valve:

  • This is present in the delivery pipe which allows discharging the water that presents in the cylinder.

Outlet Valve:

  • This is provided in the suction pipe which allows entering the water into the cylinder when the piston moves in backward direction.

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