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Classification of Engineering Materials

Classification of Engineering Materials:

An engineering material is a material that is used in the production of objects, designing, and manufacturing of various products. They can be used to make the construction of buildings, bridges, and other structures possible. Some examples of engineering materials include steel, concrete, fiberglass, plastics, and rubber. The term “engineering” comes from the Latin word Ingenium which means "knowledge." So by definition, all materials are engineering materials because they can be designed to perform a specific function.

In the technical field, engineering materials are the mixture of different types of minerals and metals used in various parts of a product or machine. Engineering materials are those materials that are used in the field of engineering. The main purpose of these materials is to produce or repair something by changing their properties of these materials.

For example, Steel is an engineering material that is widely used in construction. Engineers use steel to make bridges, skyscrapers, cars, railroads, and much more. 

The classification of engineering materials is a complex subject that has many different aspects. Some of the key components that come into play are mechanical properties, chemical composition, and thermal conductivity.

A material's mechanical properties determine how well it performs in a specific application and its ability to withstand forces applied to it. 

A material's chemical composition defines its physical properties such as hardness, melting point, density, and color. 

Thermal conductivity is an important factor because heat must be removed from the system being built so it can cool down or it will damage the material used for construction.

Materials can be classified into many different categories based on their intended use. There are six main classes of materials: structural, thermoplastic, ceramic, metallurgical, composite, and other.

Structural materials include metals like steel and aluminum as well as composites like carbon fiber and graphite-epoxy resins. Thermoplastic materials include polymers such as nylon or polypropylene that are used in the manufacturing of goods such as shoes or textiles. 

Ceramic materials are made from clay and may be either crystalline or amorphous. 

Metals have three main classifications; ferrous (iron), non-ferrous (non-magnetic iron), and precious metals like gold or silver. 

Composites consist of a mixture of two or more types of raw material that is then formed into a shape through molding techniques to create a finished product with desired properties like strength or weight reduction.

Depending upon the nature of substance materials are classified Into different types:

  1. Metals and alloys
  2. Ferrous metals
  3. Non-ferrous metals
  4. Non-metals
  5. Ceramics
  6. Polymers
  7. Composites
  8. Semi Conductors
  9. Bio Materials

Metals and Alloys:

Metals and alloys are a category of material that is made up of two or more metals. The combination of metals makes them stronger than individual metals. Metals and alloys are usually used in construction, manufacturing, electronics, appliances, etc. 

Metals and alloys can be divided into a precious metal group which includes gold, silver, platinum, and palladium, etc., a non-precious metal group which includes aluminum, copper, and zinc, etc., 

Metals and alloys are made up of different metals combined with other materials to form a solid mass. The most common metals used in the manufacturing of products are Aluminium, Copper, Iron, Steel, and Stainless steel. Alloys are often more effective than pure metal because they have a better strength-to-weight ratio and can be formed into a wide variety of shapes using casting or forging techniques.

Alloy group which includes stainless steel and cast iron, etc., ceramics group which includes porcelain tiles for kitchen tops as well as bathroom vanities, etc., glass group which includes window glass for windows as well as mirrors used in bathrooms, etc., composite materials such as fiberglass composites that can replace wood products in buildings like houses or schools.

Ferrous metals:

Ferrous metals are those that contain iron. This includes iron, steel, and some alloys of iron.

Ferrous metals are metals that have iron in them. The most common ferrous metal is Iron. It can be found in our everyday life, for example, it is used to make a lot of things like steel, and many more. Other examples of ferrous metals are Ferrochromium, Ferrotitanium, and Cerium also known as the rare earth elements. These materials play an important role in many industries including electronics, optics, and energy production.

Ferrous metals are the ones that contain iron or steel. The most common ones are Iron, Steel, and Cobalt.

Most Ferrous metals are used in manufacturing alloys, while some of them can be found in natural resources like ores. These metals can be further classified into groupings based on their atomic structure and composition:

Group 1: Metallic elements with low to moderate magnetic permeability (compared to other groups) - These include ferrite, pyrite, magnetite, hematite, etc. 

Group 2: Metallic elements with high magnetic permeability (compared to other groups) - These include chromium(III), vanadium(V), manganese(II), nickel(II), cobalt(II). Group 3: Non-metallic elements with high magnetic permeability (compared to other groups) - They include antimony(III), arsenic(III), bismuth(III). 

Non-Ferrous Metals:

Non-ferrous metals are those metals that do not contain iron. The only major non-ferrous metal is silver which has a high value in jewelry and coins. Other ferrous metals include copper, aluminum, lead, zinc, and gold. These are all considered precious metals.

There are two types of non-ferrous metals, Precious and Base Metal.

Precious metals have a high value and include gold, silver, platinum, palladium, and rhodium, etc. 

Base Metal contains no or very little quantity of iron but it is still regarded as a valuable metal. Base metals include copper, aluminum, zinc, etc.

Both the categories have their properties and each type has its uses in industries like construction material manufacturing automobiles engineering machinery industry electrical equipment industrial instrumentation and electronics manufacturing fabrication of parts for machines etc. 

Non-ferrous metals are a type of metal that is not used in the manufacture of steel. They are commonly known as base metals. Base metals include copper, aluminum, nickel, and zinc.

Base metals can be alloyed with other elements to produce new materials that have properties more desirable than those of pure base metal alone. For example, silver is added to copper or brass to make sterling silver and stainless steel respectively; zinc and nickel are added to iron to produce aluminum and titanium respectively; bismuth is added to lead or tin for use in X-ray imaging (see radiology). Some forms of non-ferrous alloys are considered specialized types of steels: gold–nickel alloys such as Inconel and Monel may be formed by adding small amounts of gold or nickel but otherwise behave like regular steels.


Non-metals are used in different fields. Non-metals include petroleum, coal, natural gas, and uranium.

Non-metals are things that cannot be easily melted or beaten by physical forces like friction. These include Biological materials, chemical compounds, and metallic alloys.

It is also important to note that non-metals do not have any significant electrical properties and therefore do not conduct electricity. Non-metals can only form covalent bonds with other elements which are classified as metals. This means that non-metals can form compounds with each other but cannot bond directly with another element in the periodic table of elements. 

Non-metals are those elements that cannot be found in the earth's crust.

Non-Metals is that they are very portable and cheap compared to other materials used for making jewelry. In addition, they have a better way of bonding with other things which can help us develop more products in future! Hope you find this useful. Thanks for reading!

Non-metals are not metals at all. They are different materials that have the properties of metals and are also used in the production of other products.


Ceramics is a family of related materials that are used in building and decorative purposes. They can be made from different materials like clay, shale, plastic, plaster or glass, etc. Ceramic tiles are mostly used for covering the floor of our houses and some ceramic wall panels are also available in the market. Ceramic is also used to make different types of decorative objects such as vases, bowls, figurines, etc.

Ceramics is a material used to make beautiful art pieces. Ceramic is the most common clay in the world and it is also one of the oldest materials on earth. There are many ways to use ceramics for making artistic pieces such as vases, statues, decorative items, and tiles among others.

Ceramics is the general term for a group of ceramic materials that are derived from natural clay and processed by firing at temperatures of about 1200-1400 degrees Celsius.

Ceramic tiles can be found in any color, shape, or design. You can also choose between plain, patterned, or colored tiles as per your preference.


Polymers are long-chain molecules that can be made of many different monomers. These chains can contain thousands of repeating units and are composed of organic compounds called monomers. Polymers are generally insoluble in water, but they do dissolve in organic solvents such as alcohols, oils, and ketones.

Polymers have a broad range of uses: they're used to make packaging materials like plastics or resin films, they're used to create adhesives and coatings, they're the basis for fiber optics, they play an important role in many industrial processes like paper making or textile manufacturing; and more recently, researchers have been exploring their potential applications as medicines and biodegradable materials.

Polymers are long chains of molecules that can be made from many different types of monomers

Synthetic Polymers: Synthetic polymers are of Two types, they are as follows:
I. Thermoplastics
II. Thermosetting plastics


Composites are the combination of two or more materials. These materials can be synthetic, natural, or even plastic. It can also be mixed with other substances to make it harder and more durable. The most common composite material is fiberglass which is used in a lot of industries like construction, automotive, marine, and aerospace.

Composites are a mixture of two or more materials in different proportions. They can be made from metals, plastics, ceramics, and other materials. Composite components are also used in aircraft as well as vehicles and boats to provide strength, stiffness, and durability that is not found in any one of the individual materials.

Composite components may contain fibers such as glass or carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic which are the basic building blocks for composites. They have been developed to improve performance over time by being able to maintain their strength while being lighter than similar but single component materials. Composites offer great benefits over conventional materials but they come with higher costs because they need to be manufactured using specialized technology. 


Semiconductor materials are the components of a semiconductor device. These materials are used to create electrical and electronic circuits that use current flowing through the material to perform some functions. The materials used in these devices include silicon, germanium, gallium arsenide, and many others. Semiconductors may be made into integrated circuits (ICs) or other types of circuit elements such as diodes and transistors.

Semiconductor materials are a group of substances that have the same chemical composition but different physical properties. The most common semiconductors are silicon, germanium, and silicon dioxide (SiO2). These materials conduct electricity by absorbing or releasing electrons.

The most common semiconductor material is silicon which has a crystal structure that allows electrons to flow through it easily.


Biomaterials are the raw materials used in bio-manufacturing.

Some of the most common bio-materials include plastic, wood, rubber, paper, and metals like aluminum and copper. These are all commonly used in making things like packaging, automobiles, and other products that we use every day.

Engineering materials are used depending upon the application and requirement that meet the product:

  • Corrosion resistance.
  • Availability.
  • Toughness or Hardness.
  • Temperature, wear, and tear resistance.
  • Flexibility.
  • Rigidity.
  • Machinability.
  • Cost-effectiveness for product development.

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